They also feed on lizards, insects, small mammals, young birds, and other similar prey. They avoid interaction with other creatures, and live in areas that are uninhabited by humans. These smooth-scaled snakes eat soft-bodied prey. It is also the most dangerous to humans. The same applies to giving the victim alcohol. Different species of coral snakes have different distributions. By the time the snake is an adult, it may have turned completely black or gray. The difference between them is the yellow or orange band around the snake’s neck, which gives the ringneck snake its name. As the weather warms up, the snakes will wake up and be at their most active. The four Venomous Snakes of Tennessee are: The venomous snakes of Tennessee have elliptical (cat-eye) shaped pupils. For the most part, North American species stick to a similar coloration, which makes them easy to identify. Coral snakes (discovered in 1867) are a large group of elapid snakes that can be subdivided into two distinct groups, Old World coral snakes and New World coral snakes. Though these snakes are not venomous, they are often mistaken for venomous snakes. Most species of snake in Tennessee are most active during the night. Description: A slender, small to medium-sized snake (14.0 to 20.0 inches in length) with smooth scales and a striking color pattern. If you restrict the flow of venom into a small area, then you will suffer greater tissue damage to the bite area. Breeding information: Very little known. It gets its name from that white color on its lip, which extends to the puffy lining of its mouth. No species of coral snake have been domesticated. There are 16 species of Old World coral snake in three genera (Calliophis, Hemibungarus, and Sinomicrurus), and over 65 recognized species of New World coral snakes in three genera (Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus). Small, dark spots may dot the lighter areas on older specimens. There are also a few aquatic species that live and feed in swampy areas with dense vegetation. It is found in the plains and lower mountain slopes from sea level to 5,800 feet (1,768 m); often found in rocky areas.. One subspecies, Northern Scarletsnake (C. c. copei), recognized in Tennessee.  In some cases, the limb can still be affected for months. While they eat small animals such as mice, lizards, and other snakes, they will bite a human if threatened. Red touches black, you're okay Jack. We will talk about how you can identify these snakes by their appearance, and in what habitats you should watch out for these snakes. Status in Tennessee: Unknown due to the secretive nature of this species. , The Arizona coral snake is classified as a separate species and genus and is found in central and southern Arizona, extreme southwestern New Mexico and southward to Sinaloa in western Mexico. There these snakes hunt a variety of prey, including rodents, birds, frogs, insects, and other snakes. Do not try to capture the snake. Because you're more likely to encounter a snake in these seasons, you are also more likely to get bit then. There are a wide variety of snake species in Tennessee. Like all elapid snakes, coral snakes possess a pair of small hollow fangs to deliver their venom. If you come upon one or hear a rattle, freeze and make certain you are not too close then slowly back away. Coral snakes have a powerful neurotoxin that paralyzes the breathing muscles; mechanical or artificial respiration, along with large doses of antivenom, are often required to save a victim's life. Snakes tend to love something to hide under. Snake season in Tennessee runs from the early spring, through the summer, and up until the fall. This leaves 30 other snakes that are non-venomous. However, several nonvenomous species have similar coloration, including the scarlet snake, genus Cemophora; some of the kingsnakes and milk snakes, genus Lampropeltis; and the shovelnose snakes, genus Chionactis. Amphibians and Reptiles of Georgia, University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. 575pp. Red touches yellow, it’s bad for a fellow." A threatened cottonmouth will flee in a random direction, potentially straight towards you. This snake is a large constrictor, reaching up to 5.5 feet in length. Head is red and pointed. They will dig out a long chamber in an open sandy area for the mother snakes to lay their eggs in. They return to the same den every year, and each den may house between 15 and 60 snakes. According to the American National Institutes of Health, there is an average of 15–25 coral snake bites in the United States each year. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Missouri. It doesn't matter how stylish your shorts and tank top ensemble are for the summer if you are going to be walking in wooded areas, wear a pair of boots.  In 2013, Pfizer was reportedly working on a new batch of antivenom but had not announced when it would become available. Let’s learn about these snakes so that you can identify them and keep yourself safe. According to the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, you are most likely to find one of these snakes underneath a rotten log in the Unaka Mountains. Non-venomous snakes living in Tennessee. You have been bitten by a snake and there is nothing you can do to reverse it. You will find these snakes in forested habitats or on rocky hillsides with plenty of logs and stones to use as cover. A way to distinguish between the two is an old rhyme: "Red and black, friendly Jack. , There is controversy about the classification of the very similar Texas coral snake as a separate species. The smallest and least well-known venomous snake in Tennessee is the pygmy rattlesnake. You can identify this snake by these dark stripes. They will go to their dens and brumate through the colder months to survive. New World coral snakes possess one of the most potent venoms of any North American snake. They prefer to live under rocks and logs. Conant, R. and Collins, J. During the winter months, snakes hibernate, thus lowering your chances of an encounter. Coral snakes found in other parts of the world can have distinctly different patterns, have red bands touching black bands, have pink, blue, white, and black bands, or have no bands at all. The southern ringneck snake, found in the western half of Tennessee, has an incomplete ring as well as black spots along its belly scales. Found beneath logs, rocks, leaf litter, or trash such as boards or tin. A. The red bands touch the black bands, but not the yellow bands. Fun Facts: The Scarletsnake is a mimic of the venomous Coral Snake, which does not occur in Tennessee. In some regions, the order of the bands usually, but not always, distinguishes between the non-venomous mimics and coral snakes native to North America: Micrurus fulvius (the eastern or common coral snake), Micrurus tener (the Texas coral snake), and Micruroides euryxanthus (the Arizona coral snake), found in the southeastern and southwestern United States. To see a list of Tennessee’s snakes click here. Some coral snakes do not have the typical banding colors or patterns. Pinesnake populations are in decline. Johnson, T.R. This snake has a very dark brown or black top to its head and a white upper lip. They are well known for their bright colored bands of red, black, and yellow scales. Usually, a common garter snake has 3 light stripes on its body. They can be found in dry scrublands, swamps, pine flatwoods, and more. The existing American coral snake antivenom stock technically expired in 2008, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has extended the expiration date every year through to at least 30 April 2017. These snakes like to burrow, so they will usually be found in areas with loose or sandy soil that they can more easily dig through. More than likely your worst problem with the bite will be swelling. Coral snakes are a large group of venomous snakes in the Elapidae family. 1998. Snakes depend more on senses such as smell and touch to find their prey, rather than sight which requires daylight.  The fangs are fixed in position rather than retractable, and rather than being directly connected to the venom duct, they have a small groove through which the venom enters the base of the fangs. Also, most have thick bodies and blunt tails. The doctor will more than likely monitor your blood pressure and the swelling and then send you home in the morning. This is also the time when a lot of small mammalian species that serve as snakes’ prey – such as mice, rats, and rabbits – have babies. They have a short, blunt snout, rectangular looking head, and small beady eyes. Some of these snakes have found home in human habitats, including vacant lots full of trash to hide under. I’ve always been fascinated by snakes and reptiles. B., Camp C. D., Gibbons, W., and Elliot, M. J. This snake grows to be between 2 and 3 feet long and has very bright, beautiful color patterns. Depending on the species, they will lay a small number of eggs, known as a clutch. There are 16 species of Old World coral snake in three genera (Calliophis, Hemibungarus, and Sinomicrurus), and over 65 recognized species of New World coral snakes in three genera (Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus). According to Clinical Toxicology, even after treatment, venom effects from a copperhead bite such as pain and swelling can persist for up to 2 weeks after the bite. They add a button each year as they shed their skin. These snakes grow to be between 2 and 3 feet in length.  Species that appear similar to coral snakes include: University of Arizona College of Medicine, "The Most Common Myths About Coral Snakes | The Venom Interviews". You will see fewer snakes in the wild during the winter. Do not try to suck out the venom. Primitive? The blotches near the tail may form rings around the tail as well. Also known as the puff adder or hissing viper, hognose snakes are most easily identified by their distinctive upturned snout. As is the case with any venomous snake, it is highly unadvisable to own a coral snake as a pet. Female pinesnakes build communal nests, sharing the space with other pinesnakes. Jan Duke's Tennessee ancestry dates back well into the 18th century. These include the cottonmouth, pygmy rattlesnake, timber rattlesnake, and copperhead snake. You can identify eastern worm snakes by their small size and shiny color. These snakes come in a variety of colors. They avoid heavily populated areas, and are not commonly found near human habitation. Their bark brown back and light pink belly often have an iridescent sheen to their scales. F. D., Portaro F. C. V., Sant'Anna O. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Some species are notoriously difficult to feed in a captive setting. Of the thirty two species of Tennessee snakes, four are venomous and their names, cottonmouth, copperhead and rattlesnake are familiar to all. It is rare for people to die from a copperhead bite. What’s the Best Snake Hook for Different Snake Sizes + Species. Sometimes they turn up around lakes and rivers as well. You will find these snakes throughout Tennessee, living under rotten logs, leaf litter, and rocks in forests. Do not give the victim aspirin. The coral snake population is most dense in the southeastern United States, but coral snakes have been documented as far north as Kentucky. The northern ringneck snake is found in the eastern half of Tennessee, and it has a complete ring all the way around its neck. Some lack colored bands at all, while others have pink or blue bands. The rest of its scales can be yellow, black, or various shades of brown. If a snake in Tennessee has round pupils, it is nonvenomous. 616pp. or "Red touches yellow, you're a dead fellow. You will usually find a timber rattlesnake sunning itself on a rock or coiled near a fallen log. Aquatic species have flattened tails acting as a fin, aiding in swimming. Unfortunately, identifying snakes can be difficult as some of them look quite similar.