As already discussed, moderate intentionalists propose different success conditions that do not appeal to the identity between the artist’s intention and work-meaning. Given this pluralist picture, the maximizer, unlike the anti-intentionalist, will need to accept the indeterminacy thesis that convention (and context, if she endorses contextualism) alone does not guarantee the unambiguity of the work. But if the relevant features are not identity conferring, more room will be left for the interpreter to consider them. It seems that a broader notion of convention is needed to explain figurative language. Presents the speech act theory of literature. This painting is also widely known by the name “The Stroll”. There are also "elements of composition" to consider. Briefly put, illocutionary acts are performed by utterances in particular contexts. Artists often train themselves to see the shapes in everything. Anti-intentionalism is sometimes called conventionalism because it sees convention as necessary and sufficient in determining work-meaning. Aside from the unsatisfactory result that a work becomes meaningless when the artist’s intention fails, the present position faces a dilemma when dealing with the case of figurative language (Nathan, in Iseminger (1992)). Fiction as representation. Any well-organized feature in the work that appears to result from careful manipulation by the painter might now either look disordered or structured in an eerie way depending on the feature’s actual presentation. Sometimes there is ambiguity in a work and we want it resolved. This can be interpreted as a pattern within the painting or the brushstrokes themselves. But if the extreme intentionalist makes that move, her intentionalist position will be undermined, for the author’s intention would be given a less important role than convention in such cases. This refers to how you direct the viewer's eye within the painting. Intentions: Conversations and art. This avoids the danger of interpreting the work on the basis of private evidence. Woman with a Parasol – Madame Monet and Her Son is a painting produced by Claude Monet in 1875. Start typing to see posts you are looking for. The train station shown in this painting is The Gare Saint-Lazare and it was one of the largest and busiest train station in Paris. Contains a defense of the value-maximizing theory without a contextualist commitment. As a reply to the contextualist objection, it has been argued (Davies, 2005) that Beardsley’s position allows for contextualism. Painting of the Last Supper by Giotto di Bondone. The first two are among Beardsley’s most important contributions to the philsoophy of interpretation. One way to meet the monologue objection is to specify more clearly the role of the conversational interest. Against this trend, literary critic William K. Wimsatt and philosopher Monroe C. Beardsley coauthored a seminal paper “The Intentional Fallacy” in 1946, marking the starting point of the intention debate. The maximizer with contextualist commitment can counter this objection by dealing with intentions more sophisticatedly. The actual intentionalist’s response (Stecker, 2010, pp. Each plays an important role in every painting, which is why artists focus so much of their time on composition. By contrast, where such a feature is not intended but can be put in the work, the interpreter can still build it into the interpretation if it is value enhancing. The third objection is that the distinction between public and private evidence is blurry (Carroll, 2001, p. 212). Some actual intentionalists explain the nature of intention from a Wittgensteinian perspective: authorial intention is viewed as the purposive structure of the work that can be discerned by close inspection. This analogy has been severely criticized (Dickie, 2006; Nathan, 2006; Huddleston, 2012). The Son of Man, 1964 By: Rene Magritte Magritte painted The Son of Man, or Le fils de l’homme, as a self-portrait. Take irony for example. Where you place objects or how they're used in proportion to others can direct a viewer through the art. Encapsulating the maximizing position in a few words: it holds that the primary aim of art interpretation is to enhance appreciative satisfaction by identifying interpretations that bring out the value of a work within reasonable limits set by convention (and context). As the second premise of the argument shows, the artist’s intention is insufficient in determining meaning for the reason that convention alone can do the trick. The book defends moderate intentionalism in particular. Meaning can also be local insofar as it is about what a part of a work conveys. One of the most important for any artist is composition. There is a second kind of success condition which adopts a stronger standard (Stecker, 2003; Davies, 2007, pp. Most of the time, close attention to details of the work will lead us to what the artist intended the work to mean. Marion Boddy-Evans is a writer and an artist who specialized in quilting. Finally, two notable counterexamples to hypothetical intentionalism have been proposed (Stecker, 2010, pp. As a result, the overall argument entails the irrelevance of external evidence of the artist’s intention. The french artist is one of the major and important group member of painters who did impressionism. (1981). In these series of paintings, Monet painted wheat, barley and oats as primary subjects. Finally, there is often the qualm that fictionalist intentionalism ends up postulating phantom entities (hypothetical creators) and phantom actions (their intendings). The models in the painting were probably Monet’s father, cousin and her father. However, in a two-dimensional medium, form is dropped, so we really have six basic elements of painting. Some paintings have a very limited range of tones while others include stark contrasts in tones. This means that the interpreter will need to equip herself with the relevant beliefs and background knowledge of the intended audience in order to make the best hypothesis. The Spruce Crafts uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. It is reasonable to say that the interpreter does not need to ascertain all the possible meanings and see if there is a fit. While we tend to think of lines when drawing, painters must also focus on it. Actual intentionalists tend to dismiss this worry as insignificant and maintain that in many contexts (daily conversation or historical investigations) we have no difficulty in discerning another person’s intention (Carroll, 2009, pp. On the contrary, it seems reasonable to assume that in most cases the interpreter can envisage several readings to bring out the value of the work. Convergence is a huge painting (241.9 x 399.1 cm) – regarded as one of the most famous paintings of Jackson Pollock and must be seen in person to acknowledge it’s grandeur.The painting was done during the Cold War, a period of crisis of war and it’s aftermath among the people. The anti-intentionalist principle hence follows: the interpreter should focus on what she can find in the work itself—the internal evidence—rather than on external evidence, such as the artist’s biography, to reveal her intentions. 208–9). (Eds.). A well-rounded painting often has both of these, with highlights and shadows adding to the overall effect of the piece. 104–15). Nevertheless, this move is redundant: if we can figure out work-meaning independently of actual intention, why do we need the latter? It is in objects like these that a painter can rely on the other elements of art—line, color, and tone, in particular—to further define the texture. On top of her own work, she also teaches art and quilting workshops. In this second case the audience’s perception of the work is not very likely to be the same as that in the first case. Stormy Sea in Étretat is a painting produced by Claude Monet in 1883. Identifying the film as postmodernist amounts to anachronism that disrespects the work’s identity. Therefore, when an artist creates a work for public consumption, there is a second-order intention that her first-order intentions not be consulted, otherwise it would indicate the failure of the artist. But what is intention exactly? If, based on internal data, a story reads like a castigation of war, it is suitably seen as a representation of that illocutionary act. Here, a vivid splash of poppies, gently moving in the fields is shown. Beardsley subsequently extended his anti-intentionalist stance across the arts in his monumental book Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism ([1958] 1981a). Presents another version of fictionalist intentionalism. Aside from this “address without access,” another obtaining condition for a fictional illocutionary act is the existence of non-referring names and descriptions in a fictional work. What illocutionary act is being performed is traditionally construed as jointly determined by the speaker’s intention to perform that act, the words uttered, and the relevant conditions in that particular context. To avoid Humpty-Dumptyism, the extreme actual intentionalist rejects the view that the artist’s intention infallibly determines work-meaning and accepts the indeterminacy thesis that convention alone does not guarantee a single evident meaning to be found in a work. They may not realize it, but something will disturb them if highlights and shadows change from one side of the painting to another. A second brand of intentionalism, which finds a middle course between actual intentionalism and anti-intentionalism, is hypothetical intentionalism. Landscape painters, in particular, are often concerned with the horizon line. Lastly, it is worth mentioning that Beardsley’s attitude toward nonfictional works is ambivalent. In this case, any interpretation that ignores the intended feature ends up misidentifying the work. Nevertheless, once the connection between a symbol and what it is used to represent is established, intention is said to be detached from that connection, and deciding the content of a representation becomes a sheer matter of convention. The anti-intentionalist maintains that a work’s meaning is entirely determined by linguistic and literary conventions, thereby rejecting the relevance of the author’s intention. There is a second variety of hypothetical intentionalism that is based on the concept of a hypothetical artist. Quite often, an artist may be drawn toward a particular palette that tends to define the style of their entire body of work. That is, the present position does not claim that there can be only a single way to maximize the value of a work of art. After all, every brushstroke you make creates a line. Second, actual intentionalism remains the most popular position among all. In a nutshell: a text is not context-dependent but a work is. An aesthetic criterion is then introduced to adjudicate between these hypotheses. By contrast, the initial brand of intentionalism—actual intentionalism—holds that interpreters should concern themselves with the author’s intention, for a work’s meaning is affected by such intention. If we have access to her personal documents such as diaries or letters, they too will become our interpretative resources. A point on which people often disagree is whether the artist’s or author’s intention is relevant to the interpretation of the work.